b) many handicraftsmen performing one same or uniform work unite the capital in the general workshop. The manufactory enters division of labor into production process, and also combines crafts (even are independent.
The aspiration of the capital to boundless and ruthless lengthening of the working day, first of all, finds satisfaction in cotton, woolen, linen and other branches to itself. History of regulation of the working day in some branches of production and still the proceeding fight for this regulation in others visually prove that the isolated worker is not able to show any resistance.
The surplus value made by way of lengthening of the working day is called an absolute surplus value. That surplus value which arises owing to reduction of necessary working hours and corresponding change of a ratio of sizes of both components of the working day is called as a relative surplus value.
Like any other component of the constant capital, the car do not create any cost, but transfer own cost to a product, for production to which they serve. As they have the cost and as therefore transfer costs to a product, they form a component of cost of the last.
This fight begins with the emergence of the capitalist relation. The worker starts fighting only against introduction of cars against the means of labor, this material form of existence of the capital. He rises against this certain form of means of production as material basis of a capitalist way of production. Means of labor, having acted as the car, immediately becomes the worker's competitor.
At automatic factory the tendency to the equation of those works which have to be carried out by assistants to the car enters, natural distinctions of age and a floor between partial workers get overweight. As divisions of labor revives at automatic factory, it is first of all distribution of workers on special cars and distribution of mass of workers, on various offices of factory where they work at the uniform working cars located one near another i.e. where they are connected only by simple cooperation.
in one workshop under team of the same capitalist workers of diverse independent crafts through which hands consistently has to pass a product up to until it is finally ready unite. The manufactory arises also in the opposite way;
The car – means of production of additional degree. The working car is such mechanism which, having received the corresponding movement, makes the tools those operations which were made earlier by the worker similar tools. The car replaces the worker. But there are distinctions between a manufactory and mechanical production. In a manufactory workers have to carry out separate partial process by means of the manual tools. If the worker also adapts to process here, and process, in turn, is already in advance adapted for the worker. At mechanical production this subjective the principle of division of labor disappears. All process decays on the compound phases and all of them unite by means of use of equipment.
The mass of the made surplus value is equal to the surplus value delivered by the working day of the certain worker, multiplied by number of the applied workers. The mass of the made surplus value is equal to the size of the advanced variable capital multiplied by norm of a surplus value or is defined by the difficult relation between number of the labors which are at the same time operated by the same capitalist and a rate of exploitation of separate labor. If we designate the mass of a surplus value through M, the surplus value delivered to certain workers on average in a day through m, the variable capital which is daily advanced on purchase of one labor through V1, total amount of the variable capital through V2, cost of average labor through To, extent of its operation through (additional work / the necessary I rub also number of the applied workers through n, we will receive:
Manufactory, reproducing in a workshop and systematically developing traditional isolation of crafts which it finds in society to extreme limits, thereby creates virtuosity of private workers. Transformation of partial work into vital calling of this person corresponds to aspiration to give them the form of shops. The manufactory period improves working tools, adapting them for special functions of partial workers.